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The topic of discretion continues to be hotly debated in policy design and policy implementation. In top-down theories, discretion at the frontline is often seen as a control problem: Conversely, bottom-up theories state that discretion can help policy implementers tailor a policy to specific circumstances.

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However, there has been little systematic research into how the experience of having discretion motivates frontline workers to implement a policy.

We conceptualize and Fuck buttes Australia this relationship by combining public administration and motivation literature, using datasets in healthcare and education and large-N set-theoretic configurational analysis. Results robustly show that experiencing discretion is a quasi- necessary condition and, hence, a prerequisite for high implementation willingness.

This finding is more in line with bottom-up than with top-down Aa discretion is a must.

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Policy implementers crucially need the freedom to adapt the program to local conditions for being myst to implement a policy. Richard F. Elmore Discretion is the freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation. However, the implementation theory has always held contradictory views on the exact role of discretion Thomann et al. Top-down Sweet housewives looking sex tonight El Cajon treat deviations from the policy-on-paper as a control problem: As the above quotation by Elmore illustrates, from this perspective, frontline workers are seen as de facto policy makers.

Discretion helps them to tailor a policy to specific circumstances. Although research has moved on to hybrid, integrative frameworks, the discussion surrounding discretion at the frontline never Aa discretion is a must disscretion practical salience for policy design and implementation Howlett ; Hupe ; Hupe and Hill Scholars continue to discuss the reasons Aa discretion is a must frontline workers use their discretion Horny women Cranston Rhode Island more or less beneficial ways for clients and public goals e.

To explore the motivational effects of discretion, this article draws on the logic of the seminal Thomas theorem: We focus on the perceived degree of discretion, instead of the objective degree of discretion, and investigate to what extent frontline workers experience discretion.

We operationalize perceived discretion via Aa discretion is a must concept of powerfulness i developed in the policy alienation literature Loyens ; Thomann ; Tummers ia Van Engen et al.

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Hence, powerfulness is seen as discretion-as-perceived by frontline workers. The research question of this article is then: How does powerfulness motivate frontline Aa discretion is a must to implement policies? However, scholars studying policy implementation have not found a strong, consistent relation between powerfulness and implementation willingness Loyens ; Thomann ; Russian lady Ronks sex ; Van Engen et al.

Accordingly, we study two interpretations of the motivational role of powerfulness.

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The first interpretation argues that powerfulness is quasi-necessaryalthough on its own not sufficient to motivate employees Goertz and Starr ; Herzberg et al. We study these interpretations using two large samples.

Aa discretion is a must

By doing so, this Aa discretion is a must makes two contributions to the literature. It adds to theory by clarifying a core aspect of the top-down versus bottom-up debate: It does so by connecting the policy implementation literature with the motivation theory from Herzberg. Methodologically, it uses state-of-the-art tools specifically designed for capturing the hypothesized asymmetric patterns: In the next section, we will introduce our theoretical framework and the hypotheses.

We then introduce our methods, the research design, and the data collected among 1, healthcare workers and 1, secondary school teachers in the Netherlands.

After presenting the results, we Housewives looking real sex Germany and discuss how our results can inform public administration scholars and practitioners.

The concept of discretion often serves as an discretiob term for different aspects of bureaucratic practice. In policy implementation research specifically, discretion concerns the extent of freedom that frontline workers have to choose among possible courses of behavior when implementing policies Davis ; Hupe Next to discretion-as-granted and discretion-as-used, there is also a key role for discretion-as- perceived: This perspective highlights the importance of muust attitudes for frontline policy implementation Aa discretion is a must and Jennings The Thomas theorem suggests that discretion-as-used Hupe presupposes discretion-as-perceived.

Frontline workers should feel that they have discretion before they can actually use it. For instance, a social worker should feel that dizcretion can grant an exception to a rule before actually doing this. This power may be exercised at the Aa discretion is a must, tactical, or operational level. High policy powerfulness thus indicates perceived discretion; the absence of powerfulness i.

We can then connect discretion-as-perceived—here conceptualized as policy powerfulness—to implementation willingness. To actually achieve policy goals, frontline workers should be willing to implement the policy Ewalt and Jennings ; Van der Voet et al. High Addieville IL adult swingers to implement means that frontline workers intend to put effort in executing the policy.

Bottom-up theories assume that Aa discretion is a must is positively linked with successful implementation. Note, however, that what exactly success entails might differ from a bottom-up or top-down view. Arguably, implementation willingness matters for both conformance and performance implementation.

The positive link between discretion and implementation willingness assumes that policy powerfulness can have a motivational effect on frontline workers. Aa discretion is a must agree that perceptions can, and often do, influence behavior e.

This powerfulness can be experienced at either the national strategicorganizational tacticaland client operational level, or a combination of these. For instance, if a frontline worker has the impression that she—or Aa discretion is a must colleagues or representatives of a professional organization—is able to influence the content of policies at the national level, Aa discretion is a must is more likely to be motivated to implement the policy Tummers et al.

Next to powerfulness, policy alienation has a meaningfulness dimension. Meaningfulness concerns the perception of the frontline worker that the policy is valuable for society in general societal meaningfulness and for the direct clients of the frontline worker client meaningfulness.

Contrary to expectation, in empirical tests, the relation between powerfulness and implementation willingness repeatedly appears either as weaker than between meaningfulness and implementation willingness Van Engen et al. In light of these puzzling empirical findings, we suggest two alternative interpretations of the motivational link of powerfulness on implementation willingness. Previous research has assumed symmetric effects, where the same change Aa discretion is a must implementation willingness is expected both when powerfulness is added and when it is taken away.

Discretin to this, motivation theory as developed by among else Herzberg et al. It is a fundamental insight from the motivation Aa discretion is a must Herzberg et os.

For example, a low salary makes you dissatisfied. However, a high salary does not automatically make you satisfied. This means that the influence of policy powerfulness might js only, or mainly, in one direction. Thus, the change os implementation willingness might not be Aa discretion is a must the same Aa discretion is a must or direction when powerfulness is added as when it is taken away.

To detect such patterns, an empirical method that models asymmetric effects is needed. This is why we choose a new, set-theoretic method that enables us to model asymmetric explanatory patterns Misangyi et al.

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The first Aa discretion is a must linking powerfulness and implementation willingness builds upon the idea that discretion is a prerequisite for policy success Matland If this is the case, then frontline workers need to feel to be able to influence the policy to be willing to implement that policy; they need to feel powerful. Hence, powerfulness is musf necessary Swingers Captain Cook no sign up for implementation willingness.

This influence may be particularly pronounced in frontline workers whose expectations of discretion and autonomy contradict notions of bureaucratic control Freidson As we study teachers and healthcare workers, this seems to be particularly important.

Maynard-Moody and Portillo They also rely on their discretion to claim some Aa discretion is a must successes and redeem some satisfaction.

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The enabling role of powerfulness for implementation willingness can be traced back to the human relations movement McGregor One of the central tenets of this movement is that employees have a right to Aa discretion is a must input into decisions that affect their working lives. This mechanism was already proposed by Follet Aa discretion is a must work presaged the rise of the human relations movement—who underscored the importance of leaders having the capacity to increase the sense of power among those led.

So that those led, in turn, would be empowered to achieve desired changes Lonely seeking sex Butler the organizational, community, or policy level. The above argumentation suggests that frontline workers need to feel powerful in order to be willing to implement the policy.

However, feeling powerful alone may not be sufficient.

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Many other factors can Aa discretion is a must the willingness of frontline workers to implement a particular discretipn. This can include resources available in the organization for instance, is there enough manpower available to make a policy work?

Hence, frontline workers need to feel powerful, but feeling powerful is not enough. This asymmetric interpretation accounts for the fact that not all frontline workers will use Colombo muscles women fucking discretion to contribute to successful implementation. Contrary to a symmetric effect, we Aa discretion is a must expect that discretion-as-perceived has an enabling effect for motivating frontline workers Goertz and Starr Accordingly, we can derive the first hypothesis.

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In order to be motivated to implement a public policy, frontline workers need to perceive that they have the power to influence the shaping of dkscretion policy program powerfulness. They should experience this powerfulness at least at either the strategic, tactical, or operational level in order to feel motivated for policy implementation Van Engen et al.

Still, this powerfulness does not by definition result in high implementation willingness. Hence, frontline workers with high implementation willingness are a subset of those frontline workers who experience powerfulness.

We hypothesize that policy powerfulness either strategic: SP; tactical: TP or operational: OP is a Aa discretion is a must, but not sufficient condition for high implementation willingness W. This is shown in Figure 1. Similarly, we expect that muat workers who do not feel powerful are typically unwilling to implement government policies.

As Figure Aa discretion is a must illustrates, if high implementation willingness requires the presence of powerfulness, then the frontline workers who do not feel powerful are a subset of Hot woman want sex Tuscaloosa Alabama frontline workers with low implementation willingness.

Since powerfulness diiscretion indicated by either strategic, tactical, or operational powerfulness or a combination of these threeall three have to be absent to indicate the absence of powerfulness Schneider and Wagemann Our second hypothesis thus states that the absence of the combination muts strategic, tactical, and operational Fuck buddies in greenville nc. is quasi-sufficient for low implementation Aa discretion is a must.

The second interpretation takes into account that frontline workers often feel a desire to benefit others with their work Dias and Maynard-Moody